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The Origin of the Earth, the Sun and the Galaxy

Questions without Answers

In the past 50 years the modern geochemistry made a giant step ahead. Accordingly to the collected data the short living isotopes are able to explain the origin of the Solar system.

  In the paper “The chemistry of isotopes: From archeology of the Universe till ecological control” Ernest Galimov, professor of the Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry, and Samuel Epstein, professor of Californian Technological Institute, reflected that “the matter of our Solar system is nothing else but the mix of the different nuclear materials that were synthesized during some cosmic events”.

In the Richardton meteorite an isotope anomaly of xenon (Xe129) was discovered. In the same way it was proven that the excess of Xe134 and Xe136 could formed out of Pu244. But half-life I129 and Pu244 is relatively short and longs accordingly 160 and 820 million of years. The decay product of those elements can be traced in meteorites only in case if the synthesis of those elements took place shortly after solid gas handling particles and bodies were formed.

In the 70-ies and 80-ies of the past century neon 22 that could be produced only after the powerful irradiation with the considerable discharge Ne22 was discovered. Later on the isotope anomalies of oxygen, magnesium carbon, samarium, lead, uranium and other elements were discovered.

The authors of the study concluded that just recently close to our solar-powder-gas cloud a supernova had exploded and enriched it with those isotopes and heavy chemical elements. This assumption causes us to talk about very special circumstances for our Solar system – the explosion of supernova close to a powder-gas cloud is very exceptional phenomenon.

But again there is a question – if the Sun accordingly to the modern knowledge is more than 5 billion years old, why the infused from the outside isotopes are still not touched by the decay?

Anyway very precious information and a bold idea are displayed in this paper: those isotopes were synthesized relatively recently.

 

The Origin of the Earth, the Sun and the Galaxy

Inefficiency of the existing hypothesis concerned the origin of the stars, the Solar system, the planets and even chemical elements stimulates us to suggest an explanation based on the brand new theory of the cold proton-proton synthesis.

The first person, who made an attempt to explain scientifically the origin of our Solar system, was Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace. He suggested that at the very beginning the cluster of powder and gas was hot and with time running the Solar system with the planets originated from it. The opponent of this theory became Otto Yulievich Schmidt, Russian academician, who stated that the whole mass of the powder-gas cluster was cold at the very beginning and only with the time running as a result of the gravitation activity (pressure) the mass started getting hot gradually. Both hypotheses are abhorrent the one of the other and in some points they just supplement each other, but no one answers the following questions:

  - How did all the chemical elements of the periodic table appear in the cluster?

  - Where did the mighty energy that warmed all the planets up to the liquid condition comes from?

   - Why the geological bands of our planet have different age, if accordingly to the both theories they have had to be formed at the same time?

   - Etc.

On our minds, both of them, Laplace and Schmidt were right in their suggestions. At the first stage the huge cloud of hydrogen was cold and with the time running it started getting warmer as a result of the new elements synthesis.

The reason of the synthesis is a genius creative ability of the nature to build complex chemical objects, and biological, as well, from the simple, basic elements.

During the process of the new element forming the energy of the nuclear connection comes out as an electromagnetic radiation that has turned the hydrogen cloud into a star that people call the Sun.

It is reasonable to ask a question – where the hydrogen comes from?   

 

The Circular Electron Theory

Hydrogen consists of a proton, and around the proton an electron (in a form of electromagnetic wave) is rotating.

The circular electron theory is based on a corpuscular-wave dualism and establishes a priority and atomicity of electromagnetic ether discovered by Heinrich Hertz. In the modern physics the concept of mass-energetic vacuum is still in use.

Simplifying we can imagine that interstellar vacuum is rather a vast ocean of a relict electromagnetic radiation that came to life as a result of a Big Bang. There are currents, bigger and smaller turbulent vortexes moving in different directions.

Electron is born out of this electromagnetic vacuum and represents rather a flat closed circle electromagnetic wave. As a matter of fact it is an electric current that runs in circle in a certain direction. The spin of the electron displays the direction of this current.

In one word a lineal electromagnetic field is able to generate a mass of positive and negative circle currents – electrons, positrons, beta and anti-beta particles.                

A positron differs from an electron just with a direction of its circle current. An electron and a positron annihilate after an impact emitting two gamma-ray quanta and turning into an elemental electromagnetic field.

 

The Structure of Proton

The modern science experimentally proved that material bodies consist of atoms and molecules. Atoms consist of nucleus and electron shell, and nucleus itself consists of protons and neutrons. It turned out that proton and neutron are relatives. Neutron (N) is heavier and in a free state disintegrates onto protons (p), electrons (beta particle, e) and anti-neutrino (u) accordingly to the formula:

N → p + e + u

Since neutrino has no rest mass, this virtual particle is just a pure electromagnetic energy.

Frederick Reines and Clyde L. Cowan, Jr. in 1956 discovered a photo decay of protons onto light neutron and positron in accordance to the pattern:

p + Y0, 5 →   n + b

N – Heavy neutron

n – Light neutron

b – Anti-beta particle

Y – Gamma-ray photon

A simultaneous appearance of a light n-neutron and positron, which annihilate immediately meeting an electron and producing an emission of two gamma photons equal to energy of 0,511 MeV can be considered as a prove of photon’s photo decay.

Thus proton turned to be a compound particle that was produced by light neutron. Around a proton a positive circular current is rotating and that is nothing else but anti-beta particle. In 1957 it was proved that beta particle has a left spin and anti-beta particle – a right one.

A newborn proton has a positive charge until around it a negative circular current is formed. This is the way, how hydrogen atoms arise and protons are a basic material that all other chemical elements are formed of.

 

Light and Heavy Neutrons

Accepting the structure of proton we can imagine a model of a heavy neutron that consists of light neutron. Around that light neutron in different directions beta and anti-beta particles are rotating.

That is proved by the occurrence of a magnetic moment we can observe by heavy neutron.

In 1932 K. Andersen discovered a heavy neutron’s nuclear decay along with emission of beta and anti-beta particles and with a light neutron arising, but the nature of that particle is still unclear. 

In case if close to the light neutron in different directions beta and anti-beta particles start rotating the light neutron turns into heavy neutron again (N). Since anti-beta particle rotates at the lower orbit and with a higher frequency its binding energy is higher than the energy of beta particle and this case actually explains the occurrence of the magnetic moment inherent in heavy neutron.  As a matter of fact this magnetic moment is nothing but gravitation.

Accordingly to the above-stated it follows that interstellar electromagnetic vacuum is a primary material that gives birth to all known particles. That leads us actually to a paradoxical and revolutionary conclusion: all the matter that surrounds us and we ourselves are just an electromagnetic energy in a potential form!

 

The Origin of the Chemical Elements

The new formed hydrogen accumulations fill in the space and because of gravitation begin to consolidate forming vast “clouds”.

With time running the hydrogen atoms approach each other so close that between them the repulsion forces of their electron shells are coming in full action. But under gamma quantum of applicable energy part of the atoms ionizes. In hydrogen accumulation emerges some quantity of protons that in defined conditions are able to interact producing light deuteron (d) in accordance to the pattern

p + p → d + b + Y0, 42

p + Y0, 5 → n + b

p + n → d + Y2, 21

In this evaluation the reaction of proton’s decay onto light neutron with an emission of a gamma quantum is allowed. Without this reaction an interaction of two protons is possible only on the assumption of their orientation in space. That’s why the trillion dollars costs spent on proton accelerators, magnetic traps; tokomaks for nuclear fusion energy production were rather fruitless. 

It actually means that the nature doesn’t stand the violence and in the same time it is genius in its simplicity: the reaction of a proton-proton synthesis is possible even under the space cold conditions and is running in the environment constantly.

The first synthesized elements of nature are light and heavy deuterons (d) (D) and the reaction will run in accordance to the layout:

p + n → d + Y2, 21

n + e + b → N

p + N → D + Y2, 21

In the nature the major portion of deuterons are light since the energy of deuterons experimental photo decay presents 2, 21 MeV.

But no wonder since there are no repulsion forces in this reaction.

The formation of a heavy deuteron runs in smaller quantities and under the defined conditions because of the presence of opposite orbital currents.

Another newborn element of nature is a hellion, alpha-particle:

D + D  →  Не + 22,6МеВ

The experimental recurrence of this reaction is still a stumbling block for many world academies, but the presence of the vast amount of helium in the universe just proves that for the nature it is rather a simple process – we only need to solve the riddle.

The a-particle pattern is following:

P↑     ↑N↓    ↓P    ↓N↑

In alpha-particle the nuclear forces of attraction and repulsion balance each other and reach satiation. The arrows sign the direction of the orbital nuclear currents. Because of that alpha-particles do not aggregate with each other or with separate nucleons.

That’s why beryllium nucleuses 4Bt8 are not stable and disintegrate onto two hellions. Hellions can integrate only with deuteron or triton producing lithium and beryllium.

After that a-particles start as a bricks build all chemical elements that we have in nature emitting during the process an enormous energy.

Carbon C for instance has 3 a-particles, oxygen O – 4 a-particles, neon Ne – 5 a-particles and so on.

Thereby a hydrogen accumulation turns into a flaring up star.

In this way all chemical elements are generating, right up to uranium, which has an excessive amount of neutrons that determines its radioactivity and instability. Immediately the opposite process of decay starts that leads radioactive element to its stable condition, when quantity of protons and neutrons is equal.
            The birth of stars lasted billions of years with the gradual warming of the cloud of hydrogen and the synthesis of heavy chemical elements that formed the center of gravity. Therefore, red giant stars such as Betelgeuse in the constellation Orion, may be young, not old, as they are today.

 

The Birth of the Sun

With single attractive point forming the process of the Sun birth gradually accelerated on the expense of the matters compression and electromagnetic field’s impact. The major portion of the Sun mass consists of hydrogen and helium, but at the same time all other chemical elements are synthesizing and immediately sink into burning hot bowels, where temperature arises 13 million degrees centigrade. That’s why it is practically impossible to detect them with a help of a spectral analysis approach. While the surface of the Sun has the temperature of 6000 degrees centigrade that turns atoms of all elements into plasma.

But this process is running rather very slow. It took the Sun 5 billion years to reach the present temperature level and its volume and diameter were much bigger earlier. Most astronomers consider the giant star Betelgeuse of the Orion constellation old, because with a diameter of the Mars orbit the temperature of its surface measures 3000 degrees centigrade. We on the contrary consider Betelgeuse as a new star that starts growing warm and in its crown the new planets are forming. 

The distance between Earth and the Sun measures almost 150 million kilometers. The beam of light making 300 000 km per second reaches our planet on the 8th minute. The Sun’s volume is 13001000 times bigger than the Earth’s one. Astronomers estimated the Sun mass as well – it is bigger than the Earth mass 333400 times. The comparison of these two figures shows that the density of the Sun mass is 4 times thinner than the mass of our planet.

But it looks so only at first sight. The Sun’s density is not homogeneous at all. The surface layer consists of the ionized gases and closer to the center the heavy elements are synthesized and concentrated. 

The temperature of the Sun’s core reaches 13-20 million degrees centigrade and the higher currents are moving up to the surface and colder ones are sinking into the bowels. That’s why in outward appearance the Sun’s photosphere is covered with darker and lighter granules.

Because of a big distance they could be barely visible, but their real size varies from 700 to 1 400 kilometers.

Such appearance the Sun has almost always, but sometimes a big spots or a group of spots appear over its surface. They have a shape of whirls and one can see how they are taking up the Sun’s matter.

This process accompanies with a powerful electric fields appearance. The temperature of the spots is lower, that the photosphere’s and measures 4 500 degrees centigrade.
          The star finishes its life when hydrogen is exhausted. Its diameter decreases, electromagnetic fields enter the resonance across the volume, and a huge mass of protons and alpha particles are instantly transformed into heavier elements, which causes a huge emission of communication energy and an explosion, with the birth of the New Star.
So will be with our Sun.

 

The birth of the Planets

With the further formation of the chemical elements with heavy nucleuses the law of universal gravitation displays its action with growing strength and heavy elements start their movement to the single center point. The burning-hot core is forming. It begins to emit high-frequency electromagnetic field in form of gamma quantum.                                              

When variable electromagnetic field is crossing the electro conductive environment - like ionized gas – along it an electric current starts running in a certain direction around the burning-hot core. Accordingly to the electromagnetic induction law a choking field is forming and the whole ionized gas mass starts to revolve around single center becoming flat and compressing together.

The gas disk is now forming that twisting approaches the center and making the revolving speed higher.

Simultaneously the process of the heavy nucleuses synthesis in it continues and leads to a formation of new attractive centers that move on by certain orbits accordingly to one of the Kepler’s laws.

Так природа создала первый космический электродвигатель . So the nature created the first space electric engine.

The matter in the new attractive centers grows warm as well and as a result of electromagnetic fields’ impact starts to revolve on its axis.

Nearby the new attractive centers the gas mass starts to revolve and thus forming the satellites of the planets.

The billions of years will pass prior to the time when those little stars-planets will start cooling down and forming a surface crust. As a matter of fact it is a lighter slag made of granite and gneiss that drifts on much heavier liquid melted basalt.

This was the way, how the single primary continent, conventionally called the Pangea, was formed on the planet Earth.

But the process of synthesis in the bowels of the planet and around it is still going on. It is generally known, that the nuclear radius of chemical elements is very small. But when they grow over with electron shells their volume grows up sharply and in the Earth’s bowels develops a tremendous pressure that tears the Earth's crust into continents. The planet starts to grow up becoming bigger in diameter. That’s why America tears off from Africa and continues moving away from it. At the ruptures oceans and seas appeared. That’s why the age of the geological bands under the sea bottom is estimated as far as only 180 million years. The continents drift, volcanic activity and earthquakes clearly show that the proton-proton synthesis still is going on in the bowels of our planet.    

The terrestrial core 3471 km diameter is in a liquid state and has 2000-3000 centigrade. The modern science explains the constant emission of energy provided by the Earth core with a radioactive decay. But if it is so, why couldn’t we find the decay products of cesium, strontium, cobalt and others? Why Chernobyl reactor with its 130 tons of pure uranium was burning just three months and Earth’s “reactor” is burning 4, 5 billion years. What amount of energy should be released to warm the mass of a planet’s corn that is 1,751х10 raised to the 23d power up to the melting point and maintain it billions of years? The nuclear fusion is able to guarantee such amount of energy that is necessary to warm the earth corn up to the liquid state.

Exactly because of the nuclear fusion the oldest geological rocks are 4, 5 billion years old and the Pacific bottom’s basalts are only 180 million years old.

The Chaldeans were the first who in 625 BC calculated the Earth semi-diameter. In accordance to their estimations it measured 6310,500 km. All following calculations displayed the constant increasing of the Earth diameter. The last most precise calculations provided by the USA topographic service have proved that the Earth semi-diameter reaches 6356,942 km. It means that the earth semi-diameter increased on 43,442 km and its diameter increased on 92,884 km. In 1966 E.M. Romanov proceeding from the Earth tension at the areas of the rift ruptures established that the Earth semi-diameter increases every year on 5, 1 meter. If we trust our ancestors’ calculations it turns out that in 2634 years the Earth semi-diameter increased on 46,442 km with average velocity 17, 6 m per year.   .

Russian scientist Yuri Bibikov in “Express Newspaper” No 27 (July, 2002) predicted the end of the world, which the humanity has to face as a result of the Earth’s crust break at the San-Andre rupture close to the California shores.  Surely the earth’s crust breaks happen constantly in the world ocean, but such breaks have normally local meanings and are a part of a process of the new volcanic islands rising, although the process causes sometimes vast human and material losses. The last earthquake in Indian Ocean close to the Malaysia coast caused a vast bottom rupture and the disastrous tsunami that took more than 130 thousand human lives. Taking a look at the Pacific map close to Mariam, Aleut and other breaks you can see a group of igneous islands. The volcanoes are rather sort of safety valves, that don’t let the underground presser to reach a critical level. Parallel to the basalt stretching process the process of increasing the products of proton synthesis is going on and as a result the thickness of the planet crust stay more or less stable.

The nature of the earth magnetism could be explained on the basis of this hypothesis. The high-frequency electromagnetic field of the proton synthesis in a form of gamma quantum runs through the electro conductive surface of the Earth, which is revolving around own axis. This phenomenon produces the flow of direct current and its direction coincides with the direction of the Earth rotation. This current actually produces the geomagnetic field. The nature had created a first electric generator long before human being appeared on the planet.  

In a pure case the distribution of the newborn chemical elements in a liquid should run by the layers accordingly to specific gravity. Basically, it had happened so. On the earth fall meteorites of pure iron – the debris of once existed planet Phaeton that blew up between Mars and Jupiter orbits. But through the cracks and conduits onto the planet surface practically all possible in the nature chemical elements are pouring out.

But why the planet Phaeton has exploded creating the asteroid belt and several small planets zone?

 

The Loss of the Planet Phaeton

In previous chapters we underlined the role of the electromagnetic field for the process of the proton synthesis. It is obvious that exactly this field could be able to speed the process as well. We suppose there could be three options of the developing events.

  1. Possibly the vicinity of the Jupiter, the planet-giant with a powerful electromagnetic field led to some resonance processes in Phaeton’s core and eventually to the final explosion.

  2. Possibly under the influence of the Jupiter’s electromagnetic field the chain reaction of the protons’ “neutronisation” has started (the collapse of the matter) as it takes place at the New stars’ formation and that was the reason of the Phaeton’s loss.

  3. In the third case we allow the interruption of some rational beings that once populated the planet into the nuclear processes that were naturally running under the planet’s surface. Searching for the new energy sources they started dangerous nuclear experiments similar to the one that are running in “Proton-21” laboratory or in collider.

  But anyway we can state, that most of the meteorites are debris of the Phaeton-planet and its loss must be a warning for the people of the Earth.

 

The Nature of the Moon

The Moon is a natural satellite of our planet. It is the only big celestial body that revolves around the Earth.  

The Moon is much closer to us than any other celestial body and the distance between us is at the average 384 400 km. The Moon’s diameter is 3 476 km that is a little more than the quarter of the Earth diameter and the mass is 50 times less.

Because of the closeness we can see in telescope big plains of the surface covered with big and small craters.

There is no water nor atmosphere on the Moon because of the imperceptible gravitation that is 6 times less than the one of the Earth. That’s why the Moon wasn’t able to hold it’s main part of the water amount and gases and they dissolved in the interplanetary space.

The Moon was formed from the hydrogen accumulation that was spinning around the oncoming Earth. With the time running it started to compress and flatten in common with the Saturn rings.

The process of the Moon formation was totally identical to the Earth formation. The Moon mountains, that come up to 7 km high, are granites and gneisses, and the dark spots – moon “seas” are just plains of the melted basalt.

The opinion that the Moon craters are of the meteoritic origin is rather erroneous. The diameter of the biggest ones comes up to 200 meters. It was suggested, that melted masses broke through out onto the surface forming lakes and seas. The volcanic magma gradually got frozen bulking rocks all around. In the very middle of such a spaces the surface went a bit lower forming vast plains. Earlier such a surface was typical for our planet Earth, but the atmosphere and water changed its primary outlook.    

 

Biosynthesis    

     The nature didn’t stop on the nuclear transformations – the chemical reactions began creating a huge amount of compounds. The most interesting turned to be the formation of the СН, СН2, СН4, NH3 group – the first organic molecules. It is proved, that the atmosphere of the planet-giants basically consists of methane CH4. Such an atmosphere earlier had the planet Earth as well. But further on the process developed at an ever-increasing rate: in a methane atmosphere on the background of high temperature and pressure appeared propane, butane, and finally – oil.

Afterwards oxygen appeared and the global conflagration burst out and as a result the water vapors were formed. When cooling down vapors became oceans and seas. When the water temperature fell down up to 40 centigrade the origin of life took place – the first amino acids appeared. The water in temperature range from 0 to 40 centigrade creates the best surroundings for the life appearance. In water environment were born the first germs, plants, animals and finally human being appeared, the one who started to reorganize and transform and as a result to destroy the nature.

The search for new energy sources forces the humankind to act, but we have to be on the alert, there is a high risk, that the newest colliders could turn our planet into piles of the space litter.          

 

The Galaxy

In the process of the synthesis the biggest hydrogen accumulations created a core and spirals of the stars of our galaxy. It’s central part is hidden away from our view because of gas-dust nebulae, but we can see the galaxy construction in Andromeda, Hunting Dogs and many other star constellations. The cold synthesis processes similar to those had created our solar system.   

All modern hypothesis talking of the origin of our planetary system have to use explanations that concern our solar system as a unique: the supernova outburst, the accumulation from the very beginning all chemical elements, that were created by the stars of different types and so on.

Meanwhile the laws of nature are universal in the whole space and their settlements are simple and because of that brilliant.  

 

The Mankind’s Energetic Outlook

The supplies of the chemical fuel sorts on the earth are limited and will run out pretty soon. The nuclear power engineering based on the uranium fission seems to be rather dead-ended because of the drastic pollution effects with the radioactive waste. Therefore there is no solution except the controlled nuclear fusion.

The collected by last centuries scientific data gives us a hope to see the light at the end of the tunnel and be rather optimistic in discussing the future perspectives.

  The experimental evidences of the suggested models of the elementary particles and learning the secrets of the cold proton-proton synthesis “invented” by the nature itself will give us possibility to construct brand new types of the nuclear piles taking under our full control the most powerful and virtually inexhaustible source of energy.   

 

The comets origin

Since the first issues on the discussing topic, the new scientific data appeared proving the accuracy of the cold nuclear fusion hypothesis.

On January the 7th 1999 from the Cape Canaveral the spacecraft “Stardust” was successfully launched toward the short-periodic comet 81P/Vilda 2 of Jupiter family. After third circuit around the Sun on January the 2nd 2004 it passed by the comet’s nucleus at the distance of 236 km. During this approach the “Stardust” took and sent to the Earth very detailed pictures of the surface with the highest separating power that had never been taking before. The comet’s nucleus measures 1, 65х2, 00х2, 75 km. Albedo 0, 03 – 0,015.

   Accordingly to the modern knowledge of comets we should observe ice and frozen gases blocks on the taken pictures. But the scientists discovered some sharp peaks 100 m. High and craters more than 150 m deep. Some craters of central cavity have a round shape and are surrounded with some inequalities and roughness of the comet’s matter that was thrown out of the nucleus depth. Some other craters have absolutely flat bottom and straight walls. The largest crater’s diameter, called “The Left Foot” is equal to 1 km. Another surprise was the quantity (more than 25) and high activity of the narrow particle currents that were flying out from the different places of the nucleus surface. Some of those superhigh-speed currents (jets) still staying narrow and powerful as a water spurt from the fire pump created a serious problem for the “Stardust” spacecraft. The space explorer was literally pierced by millions particles per second moving through the three giant jets. Twelve of such a particles bigger than a bullet size pierced a holes in an upper layer of the explorer’s protecting screen.

   The capsule with the comet matter was successfully delivered back to the Earth. The analysis of the comet matter displayed that in every forth portion there were “hightemperatured” minerals, like forsterite and calcium aluminate inclusions, that can be formatted only at the temperature higher than 1000 degrees centigrade.

The comet Vilda 2 turned to be a flying volcano of unexplainable origin – at least today American scientists cannot explain its existence.              

Why in the comet’s depth there are such high pressure and temperature when the surface temperature is close to the absolute zero? There could be the only one answer on such a question – the cold hydrogen fusion is running there and exclusively such a process could be the reason of the phenomenon that lasts thousands and thousands of years. The scientific data obtained by the American scientists just proved the foregoing hypothesis of the Earth, the Sun and the galaxies origin.

 How do the comets originate? Since the major parts of comets are coming back to the Sun it is logical to assume that actually the Sun is the source of their origin.  During the process of forming any star is going through powerful explosions accompanied with outbursts toward outer space vast amounts of hydrogen and some other chemical elements. In 1972 the very powerful explosion on the Sun was recorded, the energy that was discharged during the explosion was estimated round 2 billion megatons. The ejected cloud exceeded the Earth size and its mass was estimated round 1 billion megatons. The speed of cloud’s propulsion was roughly 1000 km/sec. When the electromagnetic field lines of the Sun intersect, the parallel self-inductance currents appear in the burning hot plasma. The field of such self-inductance currents will be opposite to the Sun’s one. These currents will compress the plasma into the flat disc. Because of the self-inductance current activity the process of the cold nuclear fusion with the heavy nucleus and the center of gravity forming will start in the cloud. The hydrogen accumulation will turn into a little star that after cooling will become a comet. When such a comet approaches closer to the Sun its mighty electromagnetic field starts to act on the comet again. The self-inductance currents inside the comet’s interior start to increase, the cold nuclear fusion runs faster and the halo (the comet’s tail) starts to shine intensively.

Earlier the biggest planets of the Jupiter type were able to form the comets as well (some scientists even call the Jupiter the Extinguished Sun).

With a help of the presenting hypothesis we are able to explain many of unexplainable phenomenon and scientific facts. We hope the experimental prove of the cold nuclear fusion will come to life in the nearest future.



   The main secret of Nature.

The proton synthesis reaction is theoretically substantiated and proven in the test of hydrogen bombs.

              P + P ®d + Y2,1 MeB         (1)       d + d ®He + Y22,6 MeB       (2)

where Р is a proton, d is deuteron, Y is a gamma quantum of 0.42 MeV, and He is the nucleus of helium.

Astronomers and astrophysicists are convinced that fusion is a source of solar and star energy, but the recent discovery of space research poses unanswered questions.

The first one who noticed the effect  cold nuclear synthesis of was the Soviet scientist I.S. Filimonenko, but the fans of the fusion synthesis blocked his work. Then there was a sensational statement by the Americans Fleischman and Pons, who, having no corresponding theory, under the pressure of the authorities, renounced their discovery. Further, there were similar statements by Russian academician Nigmatulin, Japanese professor Arat of Osaka and Andrea Rossi about experiments on hydrogen and the transformation of nickel 58 into nickel 62, with twice the energy released.

All these statements were accepted by the majority of scholars of the world with a great deal of skepticism, since they were not backed up by a corresponding theory.

On October 8, 2014, an independent study of the generator HT E-Cat was published in Lugano (Switzerland) for 32 days starting February 24, 2014 with the participation of a group of independent authoritative experts from Sweden - Bo Hoistad, Roland Petterson, Lars Tehner, Hanno Essen and Italy - Giuseppe Levi, Evelyn Foshi, but without Rossi taking part in them. During the 32 days of the experiment, 1.5 MWh of energy was produced at a temperature of 1200-1400 degrees. After the experiment, the composition of lithium-6 (8.6%) and lithium -7 (91.4%) changed to 92.1% for lithium-6 and 7.9% for lithium-7.

Even larger changes are recorded in the isotope composition of nickel.

The amount of nickel-58 decreased from 67% to 0.8%, and the amount of nickel-62 increased from 3.9% to 98.7%, which caused a sensation and confirmed the nuclear-physical nature of energy release.

In my opinion, the K-capture reaction, which transforms the hydrogen atom into a neutron, operates here and unconditionally joins the nucleus.

Consequently, the cold nuclear synthesis was confirmed experimentally, and the thermonuclear tests failed.

Nature, however, makes the cold nuclear synthesis reaction brilliantly simple, and proton-proton synthesis is able to go even with space-cold weather.

It all depends on the corresponding spatial orientation of the magnetic moments of the protons, and therefore formulas 1, 2 should have the form:
                                            P­­­˄ + P˄­ ®d­˄ + Y2,1 MeB              (3)        

                                            d˄ ­+ d˄­ ®He˄­ + Y22,6 MeB          (4)

The symbol ˄­ indicates the orientation of the spin and the vector of the magnetic moment of the nucleus. Protons - it's simplified by small magnets, which chaotically rotate with enormous speed and therefore it is almost impossible to combine them. But when they fall into a constant magnetic field, the vectors of their magnetic moments become parallel and the protons are combined in the space cold, forming deuterium. Alpha particles are also magnets and, like bricks, build all the chemical elements up to transuranium.

 

This is the main secret of Nature.

Thus, galaxies, stars, planets, as well as all the chemical elements are born.



   The theory of the world's ether.
Any wave can not move in the void. For a sea wave, water is needed, for sound - air, metal and other materials, but in the vacuum sound is not transmitted. Exactly, the propagation of an electromagnetic wave requires ether and many scientists of the past understood it. What is broadcast?

The neutron (N) is heavier and, in its free state, decays into proton (p), electron (e), and antineutrino (u) by the formula:
                                                 N = p + e + u
(Since the neutrino has no rest mass, this virtual particle is only electromagnetic energy.)

F. Raines and K. Cowen discovered in 1956 a photo of the decay of protons into light neutrons and positrons according to the scheme
                                        p + Y0.5 = n + b
n is a light neutron, b is an antibody particle, Y is a gamma photon.

Confirmation of the fact that the photon decay of the proton was the fact of the simultaneous appearance of the lung n-neutron and positron, which immediately annihilated with an electron with the emission of two gamma photons with energy

0.511 Me.

Thus, the proton was a complex particle created by a light neutron, around which circular positive current rotates, and this is nothing but an anti beta particle. So a heavy neutron has a mass greater than a light neutron on the mass of the electron and positron.

It remains to admit that the light neutron is a part of the universal ether that transmits all electromagnetic interactions, including light!

And since the ether has a mass, it should have a corresponding viscosity.

When the ship moves, it pulls with itself and the surrounding water, the speed of which near the board is close to the speed of the ship. Similarly, the planet Earth, moving through the worldwide ether, pulls it with itself. The density of the ether at the Earth's surface is greater, and at a distance smaller.

From this follow the following logical conclusions:

- that the Michelson-Morley experiment was interpreted incorrectly;

- that Fizo his study proved the enthusiasm of the ether mobile environment;

 - that the speed of light is not constant and depends on the density of the ether;
  - it is confirmed by the guess of the genius Nikolai Tesla that once the speed of light in glass, water, air is less than in a vacuum, then there is a lower density of ether, and not transparent Earth is an empty "bubble" in the sea of ether, as a ball of air in water;

- what exactly the ether reduced the speed of the spacecraft Voyager;

- that there was no big bang and the galaxies did not fly from one center, and the redshift meant only a partial loss of the energy of the quanta of the electromagnetic field that excited the ether.

These sensational findings are presented to the scientific community for discussion in order to find the truth.

 

Literature

  1. Скибинский Л.П. C  42  Квантовая динамика.  «Универсум- Винница, 2000 – 52c   ISBN 966-7199-82-7 / Skibinsky L.P. The Quantum dynamics. “Universum-Vinnitsa”, 2000 – 52c   ISBN 966-7199-82-7.
  2. Кульматицкий В.И. Планета Земля – продукт ядерного синтеза. Газета «Подільська зоря» №48 (7789) 21.11.2002г / Kulmatitsky V.I. The Earth as a product of the nuclear fusion. Newspaper “Podilska zoria”, №48 (7789) 21.11.2002.
  3. Скибинский Л.П.  Петрук В.Г. Мацюк Д.В. С 42 Моделирование альтернативных источников энергии ядерного синтеза. Монография. Винница: «Универсум – Винница» 2007 110с     ISBN 978-966-641-232-7 / Skibinsky L.P., Petruk V.G., Matsiuk D.V. C 42 The simulation of the alternate nuclear fusion energy sources. Monograph. Vinnitsa. “Universum-Vinnitsa” 2007 110с     ISBN 978-966-641-232-7
  4. Филипов Л.П. Всесвіт, Земля, життя. Київ, «Наукова думка 1977 / Filipov L.P. The Universe, The Earth, the Life. Kiev, “Naukova Dumka” 1977.
  5. Чурюмов К.И. Слово главного редактора, журнал «Наше небо» №1 2009г. / Churiumov K.I. The editor-in-chief’s word, magazine “Nashe nebo” No 1 2009.

 

Vinnitsa (Ukraine), 2018.

Категорія: Різні статті | Додав: Agroprom-M (26.04.2018) | Автор: V.I. Kulmatitsky
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